Peer to Peer

Adaptation of the known technology over IPTV

IPTV is a format which enables broadband television broadcast in an internet environment. One of the most important aspects of this format is structures which are able to optimize bandwidths. These structures enable IPTV to outscore other internet technologies. Before IPTV, the situation about bandwidths was a serious problem, because compared to text data, video data was less suitable for compression and had more data width. So, serious bandwidths were required for these data to be relayed. The method which was used in the beginning was tagging the data as different packages and sending them one by one. For a package to reach a million people, you had to create more than a million packages engraved with the address of the sender and the recepient. This increased the data and used up a significant amount of bandwidth. Naturally in order to use these technologies in a more efficient manner, different methods started being used to relay visuals and texts.

“Peer to peer was already a known technology. Thanks to this technology, data on the internet was stored in a part of the computer belonging to user who wanted to use that information, and relayed to other users.”

One of the most important reasons for this being a topic of interest was the narrow passes caused by massive amounts of data being relayed. The first of these narrow passes was caused by a text concerning the Clinton-Monica Lewinsky affair in the Clinton Case. The text was 17 KBs. So many people tried to reach the text from CNN’s website that all CNN servers crashed. CNN became one of the first discoverers of the need to compensate for this traffic, deciding that the structure should be formed in different ways. It was decided that POP protocol and proxies should be used to upload frequently used data and service providers started setting up proxies. But there have been situations in which this was also inadequate. Companies such as Akamai started setting up POP points in order to relay data to more places and created a new technology in accordance. This technology is among the ones used for relaying video globally over the internet.

It is vital to note down the importance of these companies on the matter of redirecting the data traffic up until now. In situations where even these methods proved inadequate, especially since the services of these brands and companies could not be bought, people came up with the method of peer to peer. Peer to peer was already a known technology. Thanks to this technology, data on the internet was stored in a part of the computer belonging to user who wanted to use that information, and relayed to other users. Napster was one of the first services that discovered this system. Because of the illegal music sharing with this application, Napster decided to cease its activities for a period of time. After that, BitTorrent started developing different. People started using it in legal ways. The mode of operation of this system is users allocating a part of their computer and bandwidth for use of the needs of other users. Another version of this method was Cloud Computing, which depended on peer-to-peer sharing by servers rather than users. Thanks to Cloud Computing, it was possible for multiple servers to act as a single computer and carry information on a structure similar to a cloud on the internet. With IPTV, most of these needs are being removed.

 ‘Peer to peer casting’ for beginners

It is important to explain peer to peer casting, one of the most important needs which will be removed. Under normal circumstances, it is not possible to broadcast over the internet. While relaying video from one place to another or when a million people connect to a live broadcast, it is required to create millions of copies of a file and relay it to millions of people. When video is in question, a serious problem arises. The sequencing of packages in video visuals is extremely important. If any package arrives late, that package loses its importance and is discarded without even being viewed. To prevent it, people started peer to peer casting where many users came together to use their bandwidths.

Thanks to peer to peer casting, the center relays the live broadcast to a certain part, and that part can relay the same data over and over again thanks to the circles it formes under certain individuals. This way, perhaps with a bit of delay (since this delay is measured in seconds, many people won’t even be able to comprehend it), people are able to view the same broadcast. This way the processor and bandwidth of the computer in the center is used more economically.

But with IPTV,  all these preexisting conditions changed. The router structures formed with IPTV and the traffic structure acquired new technologies which can relay data to a million people at once without duplicating it a million times. With these technologies and IPTV, peer to peer casting will cease to be used unless it serves as a solution to a different problem. However “Cloud Computing” will be a part of IPTV in a short period of time.

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